Rugby, a sport of strength, speed, and endurance, is often misunderstood and miscategorized. Some view it as a variation of football, while others see it as a form of wrestling. But what exactly is rugby? Is it a sport of its own unique category, or does it belong to another? In this article, we will explore the intricacies of rugby and determine its rightful place in the world of sports. Get ready to dive into the thrilling world of rugby and discover its true identity.
Rugby is a sport that falls under the category of team sports. It is a physical and fast-paced game that involves two teams of 15 players each, who compete to score points by carrying and passing a ball across the field. Rugby originated in England and is now played all over the world, with popular professional leagues in countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and France. The sport requires a combination of strength, speed, agility, and teamwork, and is known for its intense physicality and high level of skill. Rugby has two main formats: rugby union and rugby league, with union being the more popular and widely played version globally.
Origins of Rugby
Rugby is a sport that has a long and rich history, with origins dating back to the 19th century. The game was first played at Rugby School in Warwickshire, England, in 1823. The original game was played with 15 players on each side, and the main objective was to get a ball from one end of the field to the other.
The first official rules of rugby were drawn up in 1845, and the game began to spread throughout England and eventually to other countries. In 1871, the first international rugby match was played between England and Scotland.
Over time, rugby developed into two main forms: rugby union and rugby league. Rugby union is played with 15 players on each side and is more popular in countries such as England, Wales, Ireland, and France. Rugby league, on the other hand, is played with 13 players on each side and is more popular in countries such as Australia and New Zealand.
Despite its origins in England, rugby has become a global sport with a huge following in countries such as South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji. Today, rugby is played at both amateur and professional levels, and major international tournaments such as the Rugby World Cup attract millions of fans from around the world.
Rugby vs Football
When comparing rugby and football, it is important to note that they are both physical and fast-paced sports that involve a lot of running and strategic play. However, there are several key differences between the two sports.
One of the most notable differences is the size of the teams. Football teams have 11 players on the field at a time, while rugby teams have 15 players. This means that rugby players have to be more physically robust and have better endurance to cope with the demands of the game.
Another difference is the rules of the game. In football, the objective is to score points by getting the ball into the opposing team’s end zone. In rugby, the objective is to score points by getting the ball over the try line, which is similar to a touchdown in football. However, there are several additional rules in rugby that make the game more complex, such as the rule that players can only pass the ball laterally or backward.
In terms of equipment, rugby players wear more protective gear than football players. Rugby players wear pads and helmets to protect themselves from impacts, while football players do not wear helmets and only wear pads on certain parts of their body.
Overall, while rugby and football share some similarities, they are distinct sports with their own unique rules and equipment.
When comparing rugby to other sports, it is essential to consider the key differences that set it apart. Here are some of the most notable distinctions:
- Contact: Rugby is a full-contact sport, meaning that players are allowed and even encouraged to tackle their opponents to the ground. This sets it apart from sports like American football, where players wear pads and helmets to protect themselves from impact.
- Oval Shaped Ball: Rugby is played with an oval-shaped ball, which is different from the round ball used in sports like soccer or football. The shape of the ball affects the way it can be passed and kicked, adding an extra layer of complexity to the game.
- Number of Players: Rugby is played with 15 players on each team, while American football has 11 players on each team. This means that there are more players on the field in rugby, which can lead to more passing and more opportunities for scoring.
- Game Length: Rugby matches are typically longer than those in other sports. A rugby match consists of two 40-minute halves, while an American football game is divided into four 15-minute quarters. This means that rugby players have to maintain their energy and focus for a longer period of time.
- Rules: The rules of rugby are different from those in other sports as well. For example, there is no instant replay in rugby, meaning that referees have to make their decisions on the spot. Additionally, there are no timeouts in rugby, which means that players have to rely on their physical fitness and mental toughness to make it through the entire match.
Popularity of Rugby
Rugby is a popular sport that has gained a significant following around the world. The sport was initially developed in England in the early 19th century, and it has since spread to other countries, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and France. Today, rugby is played by millions of people in over 100 countries, making it one of the most widely played sports in the world.
One of the main reasons for rugby’s popularity is its fast-paced and physical nature. The sport requires a high level of fitness, strength, and agility, making it appealing to athletes and fans alike. Rugby is also known for its strategic complexity, with teams required to make split-second decisions on the field.
Another factor contributing to rugby’s popularity is its ability to bring people together. The sport has a strong sense of community, with clubs and teams often serving as social hubs for their members. Rugby fans are known for their passion and loyalty, with many supporters attending games and events wearing their team’s colors and cheering on their favorite players.
In addition to its popularity at the grassroots level, rugby is also a popular spectator sport. Major international tournaments, such as the Rugby World Cup, attract millions of viewers from around the world, making it one of the most-watched sports on television.
Overall, rugby’s popularity can be attributed to its fast-paced and physical nature, strategic complexity, and strong sense of community. Whether played at the grassroots level or watched by millions on television, rugby continues to be a beloved sport around the world.
In rugby, scrums are a tactical formation used by teams to restart the game after a minor infringement or when the ball has gone out of bounds. Scrums involve players from both teams packing together in a structured formation, with the aim of gaining possession of the ball.
The scrum is composed of eight players from each team, who interlock with each other’s arms, forming a square. The players in the middle of the scrum are known as the “front row,” while the players behind them are referred to as the “back row.” The players in the front row are responsible for pushing and maintaining the shape of the scrum, while the players in the back row are responsible for providing support and driving the scrum forward.
There are strict rules governing the use of scrums in rugby, including the positioning of players and the order in which they engage with each other. The team that did not commit the inf
Lineouts are a crucial aspect of rugby tactics, involving the throwing and catching of the ball between teammates. This tactic is primarily used to restart play after the ball has gone out of bounds, typically in the opponent’s territory. The lineout is positioned at the location where the ball went out of bounds, and both teams form a line perpendicular to the field’s sideline.
In a lineout, the attacking team aligns themselves along the sideline, while the defending team forms a line opposite them. The player who threw the ball out of bounds, known as the “jumper,” stands at the back of the lineout, while the players from both teams in front of them are referred to as “hitters.”
The objective of the lineout is for the attacking team to catch the ball thrown by the jumper, while the defending team aims to disrupt the throw or prevent the attacking team from catching the ball. To ensure success, both teams employ various strategies and techniques to gain an advantage in the lineout.
One such technique is the “lifter,” where a hitter jumps vertically to gain height and block the jumper’s view of their teammates. This allows the lifter’s teammate to move into a more advantageous position to catch the ball. Additionally, “marking” is crucial in the lineout, where hitters identify the jumper’s intended target and position themselves to prevent them from catching the ball.
Effective lineout execution requires precise timing, coordination, and communication between teammates. It is a complex maneuver that demands both physical prowess and strategic insight, making it a vital component of rugby tactics.
A maul is a tactic used in rugby where the forwards of the team form a lineout and push and shove the opposing team to gain possession of the ball. This tactic is often used in the scrum, where the forwards from both teams pack in and push against each other. The objective of the maul is to move the ball forward and create an opportunity for the backs to join the attack and score a try. The maul can be a powerful weapon in the game of rugby, and teams that use it effectively can gain significant advantages over their opponents.
Rugby is a sport that involves physical contact and is played by two teams of 15 players. It is a collision sport that requires strength, speed, and endurance. Rugby has various tactics that teams use to gain an advantage over their opponents. One of the most critical aspects of rugby is the ruck.
A ruck is a situation that occurs when a player is on the ground and another player, usually from the opposing team, comes to tackle them. The player on the ground is known as the ball carrier, and the player tackling them is known as the tackler. The objective of the ruck is to secure possession of the ball.
The rules of the ruck are as follows:
- The ball must be released from the ruck as soon as possible.
- The ball carrier must stay on their back with their feet facing the direction of the goal line.
- The tackler must stay on their feet and bind to the ball carrier’s feet or legs.
- The binding player must stay on their feet and must not make contact with the ball.
- The player who is not binding must stay behind the ball carrier and must not interfere with the ball.
- The player who is on the ground must not obstruct the player who is binding.
- The player who is not binding must not cross the feet of the player who is binding.
- If the ball is not released within five seconds, the referee can order the ball to be brought back to the place where it was when the ruck was formed.
In summary, the ruck is a critical aspect of rugby, and understanding the rules is essential for any player. The ruck is an opportunity for the attacking team to gain possession of the ball, and the defending team must be aware of the rules to avoid giving away penalties.
In rugby, tackles are a crucial aspect of the game. The aim of a tackle is to bring the ball carrier to the ground and prevent them from moving forward. There are several types of tackles used in rugby, each with its own unique technique.
- Running Tackle: This is the most common type of tackle in rugby. The tackler approaches the ball carrier at full speed and aims to make contact with them as they hit the ground. The tackler should aim to wrap their arms around the ball carrier’s legs and bring them to the ground.
- Shoulder Tackle: This type of tackle involves the tackler leading with their shoulder and making contact with the ball carrier. The tackler should aim to wrap their arms around the ball carrier’s chest and drive them backward.
- Side Tackle: The tackler approaches the ball carrier from the side and aims to make contact with their chest or shoulder. The tackler should aim to bring the ball carrier to the ground and prevent them from moving forward.
- High Tackle: A high tackle is any tackle that is above the shoulder of the ball carrier. This type of tackle is illegal in rugby and can result in a penalty or a yellow card.
It is important for rugby players to master the art of tackling, as it is a crucial skill in the game. However, it is also important to remember that tackling should be done safely and within the rules of the game. Players should avoid dangerous tackles and aim to make clean, legal tackles to prevent injuries and penalties.
In rugby, the forwards are a crucial part of the team, responsible for the set-piece plays and providing support for the backs. The forwards are typically divided into two categories: the front row and the back row.
The front row consists of the loosehead prop, tighthead prop, and hooker. The loosehead prop is usually the player who will throw the ball into the scrum, while the tighthead prop is responsible for providing stability and support for the scrum. The hooker is the player who will try to steal the ball from the opposing team during the scrum.
The back row consists of the flankers and the number 8. The flankers are the players who will typically make the tackles and break through the opposing team’s defensive line. The number 8 is the largest of the forwards and is usually responsible for providing support and carrying the ball forward.
Overall, the forwards play a vital role in rugby, as they provide the foundation for the team’s attacks and defense. They must work together to provide support and protection for the ball carrier, while also making tackles and disrupting the opposing team’s plays.
Rugby is a physical and fast-paced sport that requires a high level of skill and endurance. The game is played by two teams, each consisting of 15 players, and the objective is to score points by either touching down the ball in the opponent’s try zone or by kicking goals. In rugby, there are several positions, each with its own set of responsibilities and requirements. The backs are one of the key positions in rugby, and they play a crucial role in the team’s attacking strategy.
The backs in rugby are responsible for the majority of the scoring in the game. They are the players who have the most interaction with the ball and are responsible for creating space and scoring opportunities for the team. There are several positions within the backs, each with its own unique role and responsibilities.
The three main positions within the backs are the outside backs, the centers, and the inside backs. The outside backs, also known as the wings, are the players who play on the outside edges of the field. They are responsible for running and catching the ball, and they are often the players who score the majority of the tries for the team.
The centers are the players who play in the center of the field. They are responsible for making the key decisions in the team’s attacking strategy and for distributing the ball to the other players. They are also responsible for scoring tries and for making tackles.
The inside backs, also known as the halfbacks and the scrum-halves, are the players who play in the center of the field. They are responsible for making the key decisions in the team’s attacking strategy and for distributing the ball to the other players. They are also responsible for scoring tries and for making tackles.
In addition to these main positions, there are also several other positions within the backs, including the fullback, the winger, the center, and the scrum-half. Each of these positions has its own unique role and responsibilities, and together they form the backbone of the team’s attacking strategy.
The hooker is a critical position in the sport of rugby. This player is responsible for the ball being delivered to the scrum half and must have excellent ball handling skills. The hooker is also known as the number two and is typically one of the taller players on the team.
One of the primary responsibilities of the hooker is to provide stability in the scrum. They must be able to hold their own against the opposing team’s prop and ensure that the scrum does not collapse. The hooker is also responsible for getting the ball away from the scrum and passing it to the scrum half.
In addition to their role in the scrum, the hooker may also be involved in attacking plays. They may carry the ball forward and try to break through the opposing team’s defense. The hooker may also be involved in short kicking games and must be able to make accurate throws in and out of the scrum.
To be successful as a hooker, a player must have excellent technique, strength, and endurance. They must also be able to work well with their teammates and communicate effectively within the scrum. The hooker is a crucial position in rugby and plays a vital role in the team’s overall performance.
In the sport of rugby, the prop is a player who is stationed at the front of the scrum. The prop’s primary role is to support the scrum by providing stability and pushing power. The prop is also responsible for performing the initial hit on the opposing team’s scrum.
The prop is one of the largest players on the field, typically weighing between 18 and 20 stone (252-278 pounds). They are usually tall and have a strong, muscular build.
The prop wears the number 1 or 3 jersey and is part of the front row of the scrum. The prop on the left side of the scrum is known as the “loosehead prop,” while the prop on the right side is known as the “tighthead prop.”
During a scrum, the props will lean into each other and use their weight to push against the opposing team’s props. The props will also use their feet to hook onto the opposing team’s feet, providing additional stability and leverage.
The prop’s role is critical to the success of the scrum, as the prop’s ability to push effectively can give the team an advantage in gaining possession of the ball.
Overall, the prop is a vital position in the sport of rugby, and players in this position must be physically strong, technically skilled, and able to work well in a team environment.
The second row in rugby is a crucial position in the forward pack. It is made up of two players, the loosehead prop and the tighthead prop. These players are responsible for providing support in the scrum and helping to win possession for the team.
The loosehead prop is the player on the front of the scrum. They are responsible for hooking the ball and setting the scrum. They must also be able to quickly move the ball from the scrum to the backs. Loosehead props must have good mobility and the ability to make quick decisions.
The tighthead prop is the player on the back of the scrum. They are responsible for providing support to the loosehead prop and helping to push the opposing team back. Tighthead props must have good strength and the ability to withstand physical pressure.
Both loosehead and tighthead props must have excellent technique and be able to work well with their teammates. They must also be able to communicate effectively with the scrum-half and the rest of the team.
Overall, the second row is a vital part of the forward pack in rugby. The players in this position must be strong, skilled, and able to work well with their teammates. They play a crucial role in the scrum and must be able to win possession for the team.
The loose forward is a position in rugby that is classified as a forward. The term “loose” implies that this player is not tied to a specific position on the field, and they are free to move around and support their teammates.
The loose forward is a versatile player who can play in multiple positions on the field. They are usually numbered 6, 7, or 8 on the team’s roster. The number 6 is typically referred to as the “blindside flanker,” the number 7 is called the “openside flanker,” and the number 8 is known as the “loose forward.”
The primary role of the loose forward is to support the team’s backline by making tackles and stealing the ball from the opposition. They are also responsible for breaking through the opposition’s defensive line and creating space for the team’s backs to run into.
Loose forwards are expected to be physically strong and possess good ball-handling skills. They must be able to run with the ball, pass accurately, and make tackles effectively. They must also be able to read the game well and anticipate the movements of their opponents.
Overall, the loose forward is a crucial player in rugby, and their versatility and ability to support their teammates make them an essential part of any successful rugby team.
The scrum half is a key position in the rugby team. This player is responsible for directing the team’s attack and is often the link between the forwards and the backs. The scrum half is also known as the halfback or the pivot.
One of the main responsibilities of the scrum half is to distribute the ball to the backs. They do this by passing the ball to the outside center or to the fullback. The scrum half is also responsible for breaking the defensive lines of the opposing team. They do this by running with the ball or by passing it to the wingers or the centers.
The scrum half is also a key player in the scrum. They are responsible for providing support to the front row players and for winning the ball back for the team. The scrum half must be quick and agile to be able to move around the field and to avoid being tackled by the opposing team.
Overall, the scrum half is a crucial position in the rugby team. They are responsible for directing the team’s attack and for winning the ball back for the team. A good scrum half must be able to distribute the ball effectively, break through the defensive lines, and provide support in the scrum.
The Fly Half is a key position in the sport of rugby. They are typically the team’s primary kicker and playmaker, responsible for controlling the team’s attack and creating scoring opportunities. The Fly Half is also responsible for directing the team’s backline and making decisions on where to pass the ball.
The Fly Half is a crucial position in rugby as they are the link between the forwards and the backs. They are expected to be skilled at both running and passing the ball, as well as being able to kick for distance and accuracy. They must also have good decision-making skills and be able to read the play to make the right choices.
In addition to their attacking responsibilities, the Fly Half is also responsible for defending their own goal area. They must be able to tackle and be aware of their surroundings to prevent the opposition from scoring.
Overall, the Fly Half is a highly specialized position in rugby that requires a combination of skills, including kicking, passing, decision-making, and tackling. They are a vital part of the team’s attack and defense, and their performance can have a significant impact on the outcome of the game.
In the sport of rugby, the centre is a key position on the field. The player who occupies this position is typically responsible for linking the midfield with the forwards, and is involved in both attack and defence.
The centre is typically a versatile player who can play in a number of different positions on the field. In attack, the centre may be tasked with breaking through the opposition’s defensive line and creating opportunities for tries. In defence, the centre may be responsible for stopping the opposition’s attacks and preventing them from scoring.
One of the main responsibilities of the centre is to win possession for their team at the breakdown, which is the point at which a ruck or maul is formed. The centre must be able to quickly identify which player has possession of the ball and then work to secure it for their team.
Another important aspect of the centre’s role is their ability to communicate with their teammates. The centre must be able to call out instructions and alert their teammates to potential threats or opportunities. This requires strong leadership skills and the ability to think quickly on your feet.
Overall, the centre is a crucial position in rugby, requiring a combination of skills, including ball handling, tackling, communication, and tactical awareness. Players who excel in this position are often highly valued by their teams and can have a significant impact on the outcome of a game.
A wing in rugby is a position that is typically played on the outside of the backline. Wings are known for their speed and ability to score tries. They are also responsible for defending against the opposing team’s wingers.
Some key responsibilities of a wing include:
- Running with the ball: Wings are often involved in breaking through the opposing team’s defense and running with the ball towards the try line.
- Making tackles: Wings need to be able to make tackles to stop the opposing team’s attacks.
- Supporting the team: Wings should support their teammates and work together to win the game.
In addition to these responsibilities, wings should also have good communication skills and be able to work well with their teammates. They should be able to follow the play and make decisions quickly on the field.
Overall, the wing position is an important one in rugby, and players in this position need to be fast, agile, and able to make quick decisions on the field.
The fullback is a crucial position in the sport of rugby. This player is typically assigned to the back line of the team’s formation and is responsible for several key roles on the field.
One of the primary responsibilities of the fullback is to act as the last line of defense for the team. They are responsible for preventing the opposing team from scoring by either tackling them or kicking the ball out of bounds. Fullbacks must have excellent speed and agility to keep up with the fast-paced nature of the game and make quick decisions on the field.
In addition to their defensive duties, fullbacks are also often involved in the team’s attacking strategy. They may be tasked with carrying the ball up the field and making breaks through the opposing team’s defense. Fullbacks must have excellent ball handling skills and be able to pass and kick accurately to support their teammates and move the ball down the field.
Fullbacks may also be called upon to kick for goal when the team is within range. They must have a strong leg and be able to accurately place the ball between the uprights to score points for the team.
Overall, the fullback position in rugby requires a combination of skills, including speed, agility, ball handling, passing, kicking, and defense. Fullbacks must be able to think quickly on their feet and make strategic decisions to support their teammates and help their team win the game.
The Thrill of Rugby
Rugby is a sport that offers a unique combination of physicality, strategy, and skill. The thrill of rugby lies in its fast-paced and intense nature, making it a beloved sport for many fans around the world. Here are some reasons why rugby is so exciting:
Rugby is a physically demanding sport that requires players to be in top condition. The physicality of rugby is what makes it so thrilling to watch. The players engage in intense tackles, rucks, and mauls, which can result in high-impact collisions. These collisions can be brutal, but they are also what make rugby so exciting. The physicality of the sport creates an adrenaline-fueled atmosphere that keeps fans on the edge of their seats.
Rugby is not just about physicality; it also requires strategic thinking. The sport involves making split-second decisions, which can mean the difference between winning and losing. The teams must work together to execute complex plays, and the players must be able to read the game and anticipate their opponents’ moves. This strategic element of rugby adds an extra layer of excitement to the sport, as fans get to see players outwit each other on the field.
Rugby requires a high level of skill and technique. Players must be able to run, pass, kick, and tackle with precision and accuracy. The sport demands a lot from its players, and those who excel are celebrated for their athleticism and skill. The skill level of rugby players is what makes the sport so thrilling to watch. Fans get to see amazing feats of athleticism, such as players making impossible tackles or scoring sensational tries.
In conclusion, the thrill of rugby lies in its combination of physicality, strategy, and skill. The sport is fast-paced, intense, and exciting, making it a favorite among fans worldwide. Whether it’s the physicality of the players, the strategic nature of the game, or the skill and technique of the players, rugby has something for everyone.
The Future of Rugby
Rugby is a unique sport that has a rich history and a dedicated following. It is a physically demanding game that requires strength, speed, and endurance. As with any sport, the future of rugby is subject to change and evolution. There are several factors that will shape the future of rugby, including technological advancements, changes in rules, and shifts in cultural attitudes.
One of the biggest changes in rugby in recent years has been the increased use of technology. Referees now have access to instant replay and other tools that can help them make more accurate decisions. This has led to a more fair and transparent game, but it has also caused controversy and criticism. Some argue that the use of technology is ruining the sport and taking away from the human element of the game.
Changes in Rules
Another factor that will shape the future of rugby is changes in the rules. The laws of the game are regularly reviewed and updated to keep up with changing times and player safety concerns. For example, recent rule changes have focused on reducing the risk of head injuries by banning certain types of tackles and penalizing players who engage in dangerous play. These changes have been controversial, but they are seen as necessary to ensure the long-term health and safety of players.
Shifts in Cultural Attitudes
Finally, shifts in cultural attitudes will also play a role in the future of rugby. The sport has traditionally been seen as a macho and aggressive game, but there is growing recognition of the importance of diversity and inclusion in sport. This means that rugby must adapt to meet the needs and expectations of a changing society. For example, there is a growing movement to promote women’s rugby and to make the sport more accessible to people of all backgrounds and abilities.
Overall, the future of rugby is likely to be shaped by a complex interplay of factors, including technological advancements, changes in rules, and shifts in cultural attitudes. It will be important for the sport to evolve and adapt in order to remain relevant and appealing to players, fans, and society as a whole.
Join the Rugby Community
If you’re interested in rugby, one of the best ways to learn more about the sport and develop your skills is to join the rugby community. This can involve joining a local rugby club or team, attending matches and events, and participating in training sessions and practices.
By joining the rugby community, you’ll have the opportunity to meet other people who share your passion for the sport, learn from experienced players and coaches, and gain access to resources and facilities that can help you improve your game.
Here are some ways you can join the rugby community:
- Find a local rugby club or team: Check online or in local sports publications for information on local rugby clubs or teams. Many clubs have websites or social media pages where you can find out more about their programs and get in touch with coaches or organizers.
- Attend matches and events: Rugby matches and events are a great way to get a feel for the sport and see top players in action. Look for local or regional matches, as well as national and international events, and try to attend as many as you can.
- Participate in training sessions and practices: Many rugby clubs and teams offer training sessions and practices for players of all levels. These can be a great way to learn new skills, get in shape, and meet other players.
- Join online communities: There are many online communities and forums dedicated to rugby, where you can connect with other players, share tips and advice, and discuss the sport.
By joining the rugby community, you’ll have the opportunity to learn more about the sport, develop your skills, and make new friends who share your passion for rugby.
1. What is rugby?
Rugby is a sport that originated in England and is played by two teams of 15 players each. The objective of the game is to score points by carrying the ball over the opponent’s goal line or by kicking it through the opponent’s goalposts.
2. Is rugby a contact sport?
Yes, rugby is a contact sport. It involves physical tackling and other forms of contact between players. The level of contact can vary depending on the level of play and the rules of the game.
3. What are the main rules of rugby?
The main rules of rugby include:
* Players may only pass the ball laterally or backward.
* Players may not handle the ball while running.
* A player may only be tackled if they have the ball or are the nearest player to the ball.
* The ball must be kicked back into play after every score.
* The game is 80 minutes long, divided into two 40-minute halves.
4. What equipment do rugby players need?
Rugby players need a rugby ball, a mouthguard, a jersey, shorts, socks, boots, and other protective gear such as a scrum cap and shoulder pads.
5. Is rugby popular in other countries besides England?
Yes, rugby is popular in many other countries, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. Countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa have strong rugby traditions and have produced many world-class players. Rugby is also popular in France, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.